Clinical References


Peggy M. Cawthon
Gender Differences in Osteoporosis and Fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2011 Jul; 469(7): 1900–1905

Cat’s Claw

Mur E, Hartig F, Eibl G, Schirmer M.
Randomized double blind trial of an extract from the pentacyclic alkaloid-chemotype of uncaria tomentosa for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2002 Apr;29(4):678-81.

Sandoval M, Okuhama NN, Zhang XJ, Condezo LA, Lao J, Angeles’ FM, Musah RA, Bobrowski P, Miller MJ.
Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of cat’s claw (Uncaria tomentosa and Uncaria guianensis) are independent of their alkaloid content. Phytomedicine. 2002 May;9(4):325-37.

Keplinger K1, Laus G, Wurm M, Dierich MP, Teppner H.
Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC.–ethnomedicinal use and new pharmacological, toxicological and botanical results. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999 Jan;64(1):23-34.


Aziz I, Lewis NR, Hadjivassiliou M, Winfield SN, Rugg N, Kelsall A, Newrick L, Sanders DS.
A UK study assessing the population prevalence of self-reported gluten sensitivity and referral characteristics to secondary care. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014 Jan;26(1):33-9

Schmidt FM, Santos VL.
Prevalence of constipation in the general adult population: an integrative review. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2014 Jan-Feb;41(1):70-6


Alaimo K, McDowell M, Briefel R, Bischof A, Caughman C, Loria C, Johnson C. 

Dietary intake: vitamins, minerals and fiber of persons age two months and over in the United States: third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: phase 1, 1988-91. Advance Data. 1994;258:1-28.

Kromhout D, Bosschieter EB, de Lezenne Coulander C.
Dietary fibre and 10-year mortality from coronary heart disease, cancer, and all causes: the Zutphen Study. Lancet.

Fernandez ML. 
Soluble fiber and nondigestible carbohydrate effects on plasma lipids and cardiovascular risk. Curr Opin Lipidol. Feb2001;12(1):35-40.

Ou S, Kwok K, Li Y, Fu L. 
In vitro study of possible role of dietary fiber in lowering postprandial serum glucose. J Agric Food Chem.

Giacco R, Parillo M, Rivellese AA, et al. 
Long-term dietary treatment with increased amounts of fiber-rich low-glycemic index natural foods improves blood glucose control and reduces the number of hypoglycemic events in type 1 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. Oct2000;23(10):1461-6.

Chandalia M, Garg A, Lutjohann D, et al. 
Beneficial effects of high dietary fiber intake in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. May2000;342(19):1392-8.

Soffer EE. 
Constipation: an approach to diagnosis, treatment, referral. Cleve Clin J Med. Jan1999;66(1):41-6.

Roma E, Adamidis D, Nikolara R, et al. 
Diet and chronic constipation in children: the role of fiber. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. Feb1999;28(2):169-74.

Kovach T. 
Managing geriatric chronic constipation. Home Healthc Nurse. Sep1992;10(5):57-8.

Otto P, Otto JU. 
Hemorrhoidal diseases. Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax. Nov1994;83(44):1225-8.

Eggenberger JC.
Diverticular Disease. Current treatment options in gastroenterology. Dec1999;2(6):507-516.

Ludwig DS, Pereira MA, Kroenke CH, et al. 
Dietary fiber, weight gain, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in young adults. JAMA. Oct1999;282(16):1539-46.

Jansen MC, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Buzina R, et al. 
Dietary fiber and plant foods in relation to colorectal cancer mortality: the Seven Countries Study. Int J Cancer. Apr1999;81(2):174-9.

Howe GR, Benito E, Castelleto R, et al. 
Dietary intake of fiber and decreased risk of cancers of the colon and rectum: evidence from the combined analysis of 13
case-control studies. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1992;84:1887-1896.

Scheppach W, Luehrs H, Menzel T. 
Beneficial health effects of low-digestible carbohydrate consumption. Br J Nutr. Mar2001;85(Suppl 1):S23-30.

Flamm G, Glinsmann W, Kritchevsky D, Prosky L, Roberfroid M. 
Inulin and oligofructose as dietary fiber: a review of the evidence. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2001 Jul;41(5):353-62

Carabin IG, Flamm WG. 
Evaluation of safety of inulin and oligofructose as dietary fiber. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 1999 Dec;30(3):268-82

Gibson GR. 
Dietary modulation of the human gut microflora using the prebiotics oligofructose and inulin. J Nutr 1999 Jul;129(7 Suppl):

Niness KR. 
Inulin and oligofructose: what are they? J Nutr 1999 Jul;129(7 Suppl):1402S-6S

Roberfroid MB.
Prebiotics: preferential substrates for specific germs? Am J Clin Nutr 2001 Feb;73(2 Suppl):406S-409S

Roberfroid M. 
Dietary fiber, inulin, and oligofructose: a review comparing their physiological effects. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 1993;33(2):

Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Vuksan V. 
Inulin, oligofructose and intestinal function. J Nutr 1999 Jul;129(7 Suppl) :1431S-3S

Van Loo J, Coussement P, de Leenheer L, Hoebregs H, Smits G. 
On the presence of inulin and oligofructose as natural ingredients in the western diet. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 1995 Nov;35(6):525-52

Ang X, Gibson GR. 
Effects of the in vitro fermentation of oligofructose and inulin by bacteria growing in the human intestine. J Appl Bacteriol 1993 Oct;75(4):373-80

Buddington Karyl K, Donahoo Jillian B, Buddington Randal K. 
Dietary Oligofructose and Inulin Protect Mice from Enteric and Systemic Pathogens and Tumor Inducers. J. Nutr.
132:472-477, 2002

Jenkins David JA, Kendall Cyril WC, Vuksan V. 
Inulin, Oligofructose and Intestinal Function. J. Nutr. 129:1431S-1433S, 1999

Taper Henry S, Roberfroid Marcel.
Influece of Inulin and Oligofructose on Breast Cancer and Tumor Growth. J. Nutr. 129:1488S-1491S, 1999

Menne E, Guggenbuhl N, Roberfroid M. 
Fn-type Inulin Hydrolyate Has a Prebiotic Effect in Humans. J Nutr. 130:1197-1199, 2000


Cannon, HL. 
Geochemical environment in relation to health and disease : American Association for the Advancement of Science Symposium, December 1970. Geological Society of America Boulder, CO. 1972

Hallberg L, Brune M, Rossander L.Hallberg L, Brune M, Rossander L.
The role of vitamin C in iron absorption. Int J Vitam Nutr Res Suppl. 1989;30:103-8.

Lynch SR, Cook JD.
Interaction of vitamin C and iron. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1980;355:32-44.

Marciano R, et al.
Effects of prebiotic supplementation on the expression of proteins regulating iron absorption in anaemic growing rats’, Br J Nutr, v.113, pp.901-8.

AR Lobo et al.
Fructo-Oligosaccharides and Iron Bioavailability in Anaemic Rats: The Effects on Iron Species Distribution, Ferroportin-1 Expression, Crypt Bifurcation and Crypt Cell Proliferation in the Caecum. Br J Nutr 112 (8), 1286-1295.


R Swaminathan
Magnesium Metabolism and its Disorders. Clin Biochem Rev. 2003 May; 24(2): 47–66.

Ranade VV, Somberg JC.
Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of magnesium after administration of magnesium salts to humans. Am J Ther. 2001 Sep-Oct;8(5):345-57.

Eby GA., Eby KL
Rapid recovery from major depression using magnesium treatment. Medical Hypotheses (2006) Apr;74(4):649-60

Roffe C, Sills S, Crome P, Jones P.
Randomised, cross-over, placebo controlled trial of magnesium citrate in the treatment of chronic persistent leg cramps. Med Sci Monit. 2002 May;8(5):CR326-30.

Kass L, Weekes J, Carpenter L.
Effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure: a meta-analysis. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012 Apr;66(4):411-8.

Serefko A, Szopa A, Wlaź P, Nowak G, Radziwoń-Zaleska M, Skalski M, Poleszak E.
Magnesium in depression. Pharmacol Rep. 2013;65(3):547-54.

Hardwick LL, Jones MR, Brautbar N, Lee DB.
Site and mechanism of intestinal magnesium absorption. Miner Electrolyte Metab. 1990;16(2-3):174-80.



Somnath Pal
Prevalence of Pain and Pain-Reliever Use. US Pharm. 2015;40(3):22.

Benedikt FischerJürgen Rehmand Mark Tyndall
Effective Canadian policy to reduce harms from prescription opioids: learning from past failures. CMAJ November 7, 2016 

Chang H, Daubresse M, Kruszewski S, et al. 
Prevalence and treatment of pain in emergency departments in the United States, 2000 – 2010. Amer J of Emergency Med 2014; 32(5): 421-31.

Frenk SM, Porter KS, and Paulozzi LJ. 
Prescription Opioid Analgesic Use Among Adults: United States, 1999 – 2012., National Center for Health Statistics Data Brief, February 2015.


Ashraf R, Shah NP.
Immune system stimulation by probiotic microorganisms. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2014;54(7):938-56

Guandalini S.
Probiotics for prevention and treatment of diarrhea. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2011 Nov;45 Suppl:S149-53

Shim YH, Lee SJ, Lee JW.
Antimicrobial activity of lactobacillus strains against uropathogens. Pediatr Int. 2016 Oct;58(10):1009-1013

Li Z, Jin H, Oh SY, Ji GE.
Anti-obese effects of two Lactobacilli and two Bifidobacteria on ICR mice fed on a high fat diet. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016 Nov 11;480(2):222-227

Haywood BA, Black KE, Baker D, McGarvey J, Healey P, Brown RC.
Probiotic supplementation reduces the duration and incidence of infections but not severity in elite rugby union players. J Sci Med Sport. 2014 Jul;17(4):356-60

Erika IsolauriYelda SütasPasi KankaanpääHeikki Arvilommi, and Seppo Salminen
Probiotics: effects on immunity. Am J Clin Nutr February 2001 vol. 73 no. 2 444s-450s

Chen J, Bechman A, Klu YA, Phillips RD.
Survival of Probiotics in Hypromellose Capsules with Rice or Potato Maltodextrin Excipient. J Food Sci. 2016 Sep 28.

Asemi, Z., Jazayeri, S., et al. 
Effect of Daily Consumption of Probiotic Yogurt on Oxidative Stress in Pregnant Women. Annals of Nutritional Medicine. 2012. 60(1), 62-68.

Ejtahed, H. Mohtadi-Nia, J., et al.
Probiotic Yogurt Improves Antioxidant Status in Type 2 Diabetic Patients. Nutrition. 2012. 28. 539-543.

Kadooka, Y., Sato, M., et al.
Regulation of Abdominal Adiposity by Probiotics (Lactobacillus Gasseri SBT2055) in Adults with Obese Tendencies in a Randomized Controlled Trial. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2010. 64, 636-643.


Rahte S, Evans R, Eugster PJ, Marcourt L, Wolfender JL, Kortenkamp A, Tasdemir D.
Salvia officinalis for hot flushes: towards determination of mechanism of activity and active principles. Planta Med. 2013 Jun;79(9):753-60

Bommer S, Klein P, Suter A.
First time proof of sage‘s tolerability and efficacy in menopausal women with hot flushes. Adv Ther. 2011 Jun;28(6):490-500.

Vandecasteele K, Ost P, Oosterlinck W, Fonteyne V, Neve WD, Meerleer GD.
Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of Salvia officinalis in controlling hot flashes in prostate cancer patients treated with androgen deprivation. Phytother Res. 2012 Feb;26(2):208-13

Sturdee DW
The menopausal hot flush–anything new? Maturitas. 2008 May 20;60(1):42-9.


Kim MH1, Choi YY, Han JM, Lee HS, Hong SB, Lee SG, Yang WM.
Ameliorative effects of Schizandra chinensis on osteoporosis via activation of estrogen receptor (ER)-α/-β. Food Funct. 2014 Jul 25;5(7):1594-601

Chun JN, Cho M, So I, Jeon JH.
The protective effects of Schisandra chinensis fruit extract and its lignans against cardiovascular disease: a review of the molecular mechanisms.

Fitoterapia. 2014 Sep;97:224-33

Panossian A, Wikman G.
Pharmacology of Schisandra chinensis Bail.: an overview of Russian research and uses in medicine. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Jul 23;118(2):183-212

Xue Y, Li X, Du X, Li X, Wang W, Yang J, Chen J, Pu J, Sun H.
Isolation and anti-hepatitis B virus activity of dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans from the fruits of Schisandrachinensis. Phytochemistry. 2015 Aug;116:253-61

Slippery Elm

Hawrelak JA, Myers SP.
Effects of two natural medicine formulations on irritable bowel syndrome symptoms: a pilot study. J Altern Complement Med. 2010 Oct;16(10):1065-71

Langmead L, Dawson C, Hawkins C, Banna N, Loo S, Rampton DS.
Antioxidant effects of herbal therapies used by patients with inflammatory bowel disease: an in vitro study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2002 Feb;16(2):197-205.

St. John’s Wort

Kenneth M. Klemow, Andrew Bartlow, Justin Crawford, Neil Kocher, Jay Shah, and Michael Ritsick.
Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects. 2nd edition.  Chapter 11: Medical Attributes of St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press/Taylor & Francis; 2011.

Committee on Herbal Medicine Products. European Medicines Agency Evaluation of Medicines for Human Use. 
Community Herbal Monograph on Hypericum Perforatum L. Herba. November 2009

Grube B, Walper A, Wheatley D.
St. John’s Wort extract: efficacy for menopausal symptoms of psychological origin. Adv Ther. 1999 Jul-Aug;16(4):177-86.

Natural Practitioner Magazine
Monograph: St. John’s Wort, NP 2014

Beth Burch N.D
The Eclectic Physician Medicinal Herb Monographs. Hypericum perforatum

St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum) Monograph
Alternative Medicine Review 1999 (Jun);   4 (3):   190–192

The ABC Clinical Guide to Herbs
St. John’s Wort: Hypericum perforatum L. Clinical Overview

Canning S, Waterman M, Orsi N, Ayres J, Simpson N, Dye L.
The efficacy of Hypericum perforatum (St John’s wort) for the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. CNS Drugs. 2010 Mar;24(3):207-25


Sharma, N.; Mogra, R.; Upadhyay, B.
Effect of stevia extract intervention on lipid profile. Studies on Ethno-Medicine 2009 Vol.3 No.2 pp.137-140

Ena Gupta, Shalini Purwar, Shanthy Sundaram, and G. K. Rai 
Nutritional and therapeutic values of Stevia rebaudiana: A review. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. Vol. 7(46), pp. 3343-3353

Srijani GhantaAnindita BanerjeeAvijit Poddar and Sharmila Chattopadhyay
Oxidative DNA Damage Preventive Activity and Antioxidant Potential of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni, a Natural Sweetener. J. Agric. Food Chem.200755 (26), pp 10962–10967

Stephen D. Anton, Ph.D., Corby K. Martin, Ph.D., Hongmei Han, M.S.,Sandra Coulon, B.A., William T. Cefalu, M.D., Paula Geiselman, Ph.D., and Donald A. Williamson, Ph.D.
Effects of stevia, aspartame, and sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels. Appetite. 2010 Aug; 55(1): 37–43.

Rebecca J. Brown, Mary Ann De Banate, and Kristina I. Rother
Artificial Sweeteners: A systematic review of metabolic effects in youth. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2010 Aug; 5(4): 305–312

Nabilatul Hani Mohd-Radzman,  W. I. W. Ismail,  Zainah Adam, Siti Safura Jaapar, and Aishah Adam.
Potential Roles of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni in Abrogating Insulin Resistance and Diabetes: A Review. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013; 2013

Vitamin B12

Langan, RC, Zawistoski, KJ.
Update on B12 Deficiency. Am Fam Physician. 2011 Jun 15;83(12):1425-1430

Seal EC, Metz J, Flicker L, Melny J.
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of oral vitamin B12 supplementation in older patients with subnormal or borderline serum vitamin B12concentrations. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2002 Jan;50(1):146-51

Fiona O’Leary and Samir Samman
Vitamin B12 in Health and Disease. Nutrients. 2010 Mar; 2(3): 299–316.

Wendy PJ den Elzen, Gerda M van der Weele, Jacobijn Gussekloo, Rudi GJ Westendorp, and Willem JJ Assendelft
Subnormal vitamin B12 concentrations and anaemia in older people: a systematic review. BMC Geriatr. 2010; 10: 42.

Kassandra L. Munger, MScLynn I. Levin, PhD, MPHBruce W. Hollis, PhD; et al
Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Risk of Multiple Sclerosis. JAMA. 2006;296(23):2832-2838.

Suzanne Judd, MPH, PhD and Vin Tangpricha, MD, PhD
Vitamin D Deficiency and Risk for Cardiovascular Disease. Circulation. 2008 Jan 29; 117(4): 503–511

Urashima M, Segawa T, Okazaki M, Kurihara M, Wada Y, Ida H.
Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation to prevent seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 May;91(5):1255-60
Jorde, R., Sneve, M., Figenschau, Y., Svartberg, J. and Waterloo, K.
Effects of vitamin D supplementation on symptoms of depression in overweight and obese subjects: randomized double blind trial. Journal of Internal Medicine, 264: 599–609
Armstrong, D.J., Meenagh, G.K., Bickle, I. et al.
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with anxiety and depression in fibromyalgia. Clin Rheumatol (2007) 26: 551.
Zittermann A, Frisch S, Berthold HK, Götting C, Kuhn J, Kleesiek K, Stehle P, Koertke H, Koerfer R.
Vitamin D supplementation enhances the beneficial effects of weight loss on cardiovascular disease risk markers. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 May;89(5):1321-7

Pilz S1, Frisch S, Koertke H, Kuhn J, Dreier J, Obermayer-Pietsch B, Wehr E, Zittermann A.
Effect of vitamin D supplementation on testosterone levels in men. Horm Metab Res. 2011 Mar;43(3):223-5

Major GC, Alarie FP, Doré J, Tremblay A.
Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and fat mass loss in female very low-calcium consumers: potential link with a calcium-specific appetite control. Br J Nutr. 2009 Mar;101(5):659-63.

Tomlinson PB, Joseph C & Angioi M
Effects of vitamin D supplementation on upper and lower body muscle strength levels in healthy individuals. A systematic review with meta-analysis. J Sci Med Sport 18, 575-580

British Scientific Advisory on Nutrition
Vitamin D and Health. 2016


Anita Rani and Anupam Sharma
The genus Vitex: A review. Pharmacogn Rev. 2013 Jul-Dec; 7(14): 188–198

Abbaspoor Z, Hajikhani NA, Afshari P.
Effect of Vitex agnus-castus on Menopausal Early Symptoms in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo –Controlled Study. Br J Med Res.2011;1:132–140.

Ghazanfarpour, Masumeh et al.
The efficacy of Iranian herbal medicines in alleviating hot flashes: A systematic review. Int J Reprod Biomed (Yazd). 2016 Mar; 14(3): 155–166.

Dietz, Birgit M. et al.
Botanicals and Their Bioactive Phytochemicals for Women’s Health. Ed. Eric Barker. Pharmacological Reviews 68.4 (2016): 1026–1073. PMC. Web. 13 Nov. 2016.